In-flight Physical Architecture

MBSE with Capella step-by-step guide

Contents

1. Introduction

2. Create new project

3. Operational Analysis model

3.1. Capture Operational Entities and Actors

3.2. Capture Operational Capabilities

3.3. Define Operational Activities

3.4. Define Operational Activities Interactions

3.5. Allocate Operational Activities

3.6. Describe Operational Capabilities with Operational Process

3.7. Describe Operational Capabilities with Operational Activity and Entity Scenarios

3.8. Operational Analysis traceability flow

4. System Analysis model

4.1. Transition from Operational Analysis

4.1.1. Automated transition of Operational Analysis

4.1.2. Contextually create new System Capability or Mission from Operational Capability 31

4.1.3. A final transition for Operational Process

4.1.4. Contextually create new System Actor from Operational Entities / Actors

4.1.5. System Analysis to Operational Analysis realisation links

4.2. Capture Context System Actors

4.3. Define Missions and System Capabilities

4.4. Define System Functions Breakdown Structure

4.5. Define Functional Exchanges

4.6. Allocate System Functions to System Components and Actors

4.7. Describe System Capability with Functional Chains

4.8. Describe System Capability with Functional and Entity Scenarios

5. Logical Architecture model

5.1. Transition from System Analysis

5.1.1. Logical Architecture to System Analysis realisation links

5.2. Capabilities Realization at Logical Architecture

5.3. Define Logical Functions

5.4. Define Functional Exchanges

5.5. Define Logical Components

5.6. Allocate Logical Functions to Logical Components

5.7. Describe Capability Realization with Functional Chains and Scenarios

6. Physical Architecture model

6.1. Transition from Logical Architecture

6.1.1. Perform an automated transition of Logical Functions

6.1.2. Perform an automated transition of External Logical Actors

6.1.3. Perform an automated transition of Logical System

6.1.4. Logical Architecture Capabilities Functional Transition

6.1.5. Physical Architecture to Logical Architecture realisation links

6.2. Capabilities Realization at Physical Architecture

6.3. Define Physical Functions

6.4. Define Functional Exchanges

6.5. Define Behavioural and Physical Nodes

6.6. Allocate functions to Behavioural Nodes and deploy Physical Nodes Components

6.7. Describe Capability Realization with Functional Chains and Scenarios

Introduction

This guide describes how to create a simple Capella example. The focus is to explore links, traceability, and relationship between model elements. As described in the Model Based System Engineering with Arcadia, Capella implements the Arcadia method which contains an ontology capturing, describing, and defining relationships between ontology elements:

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Scope split between Arcadia and Capella

The relationship between model elements provides the ability in Capella to navigate from one model elements to another, but also promoting consistency, correctness, and completeness of a Capella model.

The figure below shows model elements at different Arcadia layers of abstraction and relationship between them.

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Arcadia model elements links

It will be explored how to navigate from one model element to another using the Capella Semantic browser, but also the links between model elements.

Steps to create diagrams at each Capella model layer are as described in the MBSE with Arcadia activities step by step.

The table “Arcadia matrix activities”, captures what is expected at each level, but also a reference and activities mapping for each Operational and System Analysis, Logical and Physical Architecture tables in sections hereafter.

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Activities matrix

Create new project

It is considered that Capella is already. First let’s create a new project named: In-flight entertainment. To create a new Capella project, select from the contextual menu: “File” > “New” > “Capella project”, as below:

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Create a Capella project

Any relevant name can be given to a project. As this example is based and described on a previous project, the same name will be given: In-flight Entertainment, then click “Finish”, as below:

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New Capella Project

It will be created a new Capella project with all the layers from Operational Analysis (OA) to the End Product Breakdown Structure (EPBS).

Operational Analysis model

The steps and diagrams will be created in order as described in the MBSE with Arcadia method step-by-step for Operational Analysis, and captured again below:

Operational Analysis activities matrix

Capture Operational Entities and Actors

As captured in the Operational analysis activities matrix, first needs to be created an Operational Entity Breakdown diagram (OEBD). New diagrams can be created from the Capella Activity diagram; however, it will be used the project explorer to create a new diagram under the package Operational Entities.

To create a new Operational Entity Breakdown diagram, select from the project explorer “Operational Entities”, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Operational Entity Breakdown”, as below:

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Create new [OEBD] Operational Entity Breakdown diagram

When Operational Entity Breakdown window is open, a new name can be given to the diagram. It was chosen not to change the diagram name, as below:

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New [OEBD] Operational Entity Breakdown

With the [OEBD] open, select first from the Palette the correspondent model element and then click on the diagram to create the Operational Entity OE 1, Operational Actor OA 2 and OA 3, as below:

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Create Operational Entities and Actors

Let’s rename the model elements created. To open the model element Property window, double click on an element, for example Operational Entity (OE 1) and rename to Operational Users, as below:

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Rename Operational Entities and Actors

Repeat step above to rename Operational Actors (OA 2 and OA 3), as below:

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Renamed Operational Entities and Actors

Capture Operational Capabilities

Operational Capabilities diagram will be created next and not renamed.

From Project Explorer, select Operational Capabilities package, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table” > “Operational Capabilities Blank”, as below:

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Create Operational Capability

Keep the same name as default: [OCB] Operational Capabilities

From the Palette, to show Operational Actor Cabin Crew, select “Operational Actors”, then click on a blank area of the diagram to open the Transfer Dialog, as below:

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Show Operational Actor on Operational Capability diagram

In the Palette, select “Operational Capability”, and click on a diagram blank area to create the Operational Capability 1.

From the Palette, select “Involvement”, then click on the previously created Operational Capability 1 in the diagram, then click on the “Cabin Crew” Operational Actor to create an involvement link between the two, as below:

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Create Operational Capability and Involvement

Double click on the Operational Capability and rename it to: Perform Flight On-Board Announcements:

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Rename Operational Capability

The Operational Capability diagram showing the model elements relevant to this view:

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Operational Capability diagram

Define Operational Activities

This section will describe how to capture an Operational Activities with the Operational Entity Breakdown Diagram.

A new Operational Activity Breakdown Diagram (OABD) can be created from the project explorer and under an Operational Activity. To create an OABD, select “Root Operational Activity”, then click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Operational Activity Breakdown”, as below:

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Create Operational Activity Breakdown Diagram

When the “New Operational Activity Breakdown” window opens, rename the diagram to: In-flight Operational Activity:

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Rename (OABD) diagram

From the Palette create three Operational Activities in the diagram:

  • Broadcast Movies.
  • Watch Movie.
  • Play Imposed Movie.
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Create Operational Activities

Define Operational Activities Interactions

Next step will be to create Operational Activities Interactions Blank (OAIB) diagram, where Operations Activities can be captured. OAIB diagrams can be created under:

  • An Operational Activity.
  • Operational Capability (OC). When created under OC model element, activities are related and describing the Operational Capability.

For this example, an OAIB will be created under the Operational Capability that describes it. To create a new OAIB, select Perform Flight On-Board Announcements Operational Capability, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Operational Activity Interaction Blank”:

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Create Operational Activity Interaction Blank diagram

Keep the same diagram default name: [OAIB] Perform On-Board Announcements.

When created the OAIB diagram and from the Palette select “Operational Activities” and then click on the blank area of the diagram to show the Transfer dialog window. In the Transfer dialog window select all three Operational Activities and then “Add All Elements” to add only the three Operational Activities, then click “Ok” to close window:

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Show Operational Activities on OAIB

Reorganise the Operational Activities and create the first Operational Interaction. To create the Operational Interaction, select in the Palette “Interaction”, then click on the “Play Imposed Movie” then on “Broadcast Movies” Operational Activities, as below:

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Create Operational Interaction

Repeat the process above and create a new Interaction between Broadcast Movies and Watch Movie.

Next let’s rename Interaction name. To rename the Interaction 1, double click on the “Interaction 1”. When the Properties window opens rename interaction name to Safety Instructions. Repeat the rename process for Interaction 2. When completed the OAIB diagram should be as bellow:

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Rename Operational Interaction

Allocate Operational Activities

Operational Activities should be allocated to Operational Entities or Actors that are responsible to execute them. For this it will be created an Operational Architecture Blank (OAB) diagram where it will be shown Operational Entities and Actors and allocated Operational Activities.

To create an Operational Architecture Blank diagram, select “Operational Entities” in the Project Explorer, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Operational Architecture Blank”, as below:

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Create Operational Architecture Blank diagram

When the New Operational Architecture Blank window shows, leave the name as default: [OAB] Operational Entities and click “Ok”.

Let’s insert Operational Entities and Actors to the diagram. To insert Operational Entities to the OAB diagram, select in the Palette “Operational Entities”, then click on a blank area of the OAB diagram, then “Add all Elements” > “Ok”, as bellow:

Insert Operation Entities

To insert Operational Actors, click on the arrow next to Operational Entities to show Operational Actors in the Palette. In the transfer dialogue click on “Add all elements” > “Ok”:

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Insert Operational Actors

When Operational Entities and Actors are inserted into the Operational Architecture Blank diagram, it should be shown as below:

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Operational Architecture Blank Entities and Actors

To allocate Operational Activities to Operational Entities and Actors select “Manage Activity Allocation” then click on the Passenger Operational Activity shown in the diagram, as below:

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Manage Operational Activity Allocation to Entity and Actor

When the transfer dialogue opens, select “Play Imposed Movie”, then “Add selected element(s)” > ”Ok”:

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Manage Activity Allocation

Repeat the process above to Manage Activity Allocation for Passenger and Aircraft as below:

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Allocated Operational Activities to Operational Entities and Actors

Interactions are also added to the diagram as they were previously defined in the OAIB diagram in previous step. The OAB diagram can be a good diagram candidate to not only Manage Activity Allocation, but also define new Interactions now in context with structure (i.e., Operational Entities and Actors) and behaviour (i.e., Operational Activity).

Describe Operational Capabilities with Operational Process

Perform Flight On-Board Announcements Operational Capability was previously described by the relevant Operational Activities captured in the OAIB diagram under the Operational Capability. Operational Capabilities can also be described with Operational Process. Operational Process reference what Operational Activities and Interactions are considered relevant to describe an Operational Capability, but also to show in diagrams the flow of Activities and Interactions.

An Operational Process could be created from this diagram; however, it will be created from the OAIB diagram instead. As the OAIB diagram is defined under the Operational Capability, any Operational Process created will also be created under the same Operational Capability promoting consistency.

To create an Operational Process, Hold Ctrl, then select all three Operational Activities and the two Interactions, then mouse right-click on a model element (e.g., Watch Movie) > “Operational Process” > “Create an Operational Process”, as below:

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Create Operational Process

Rename the new Operational Process to Play Imposed Video as below:

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Rename Operational Process

The Play Imposed Video Operational Process defined in the Operational Architecture Interaction Blank diagram should look as below:

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Play Imposed Video Operational Process

To create an Operational Process Description (OPD), select “Perform Imposed Video” Operational Process from the Project Explorer, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Operational Process Description”, as below:

Create Operational Process Description

When the New Operational Process Description window shows, do not rename the diagram and confirm the default name provided as [OPD] Play Imposed Video and click “Ok”.

The below Operational Process Diagram is created showing the three Operational Activities referenced by the Operational Process:

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Play Imposed Video Operational Process

An Operational Process can also be shown in the Operational Architecture Blank diagram. Inserting an Operational Process in a diagram not only shows the flow of Operational Activities and Interactions, but also what Operational Entities and Actors are involved in a diagram. If more Operational Process were defined a combination of insert/remove can be performed to help the analysis process.

To insert an Operational Process in the Operational Architecture Blank diagram, in the Palette select “Operational Process”, then click on a blank area of the diagram. The Transfer dialogue window will be shown, then click “Add selected elements(s)” > “Ok”, as below:

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Insert Operational Process into the Operational Architecture Blank diagram

When inserted the Operational Process into the Operational Architecture Blank diagram it should be seen as below:

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Showing Operational Process in the Operational Architecture Blank diagram

Describe Operational Capabilities with Operational Activity and Entity Scenarios

Operational Capabilities can be described by Operational Process that describes and involves Operational Activities and Interactions above but can also be described by Operational Activity and Entity Scenarios.

To create new Operational Activity Scenarios, select from the Project Explorer the “Perform Flight On-Board Announcements” Operational Capability, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Activity Scenario”, as below:

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Creating Activity Scenario

When the New Activity Scenario is shown, keep the default name and click “Ok”.

It is created a new Operational Activity Scenario diagram under the Operational Capability, as below:

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New Operational Activity Scenario diagram

To add Operational Activities to the diagram, select Activities in the Palette, then when the Transfer Dialogue windows opens select the three Operational Activities, the click “Add selected element(s)” > “Ok”. By selecting the three Operational Activities will not add the Root Operational Activity to the diagram.

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Add Operational Activities to diagram

Resize Operational Activities to show full name in diagram and reorder them. Operational Activity Scenario should be as below:

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Operational Activities in Operational Activity Scenario

To add Interaction to the Operational Activity Scenario, select “Interaction” from the Palette, then click first on the Play Imposed Movie Operational Activity’ lifeline and then on the Broadcast Movies Operational Activity lifeline, as below:

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Add Interaction to Operational Activity Scenario

When the Selection Dialog window opens, select “Safety Instructions [Play Imposed Movie -> Broadcast Movies]”, then “Ok”:

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Selection Dialog window for adding Interaction

Repeat process above for the other Interaction between Broadcast Movies and Watch Movie and add “Imposed Movies [Broadcast -> Watch Movie]”.

When completed the Operational Activity should be like as below:

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All Interaction inserted in Operational Activity Scenario

An Operational Entity Scenario can also be chosen to describe an Operational Capability.

To create an Operational Entity Scenario, the steps are like above described for Operational Activity Scenario. Select Perform Flight On-Board Announcements Operational Capability from Project Explorer, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Entity Scenario”, as below:

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Create Operational Entity Scenario

Keep the same diagram default name: [OES] Perform On-Board Announcements.

Select “Operational Entities / Actors” and “Interaction” from the Palette. When completed the diagram should be as below:

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Operational Entity Scenario describing Operational Capability

The above steps allow to create new Operational Activities and Entity Scenarios under an Operational Capability.

As the Play Imposed Video Operational Process is created, Capella does provide the capability to transition and initialise Operational Activities and Entity Scenarios, to represent time-ordered scenarios.

To create a new Operational Activity Scenario from an Operational Process, open the Operational Architecture Blank diagram, then mouse right-click on the “Play Imposed Video” Operational Process, then “Transitions” > “Operational Process to Operational Activity Scenario Initialization”, as below:

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Operational Activity Scenario Initialisation

Transitions can also be done by selecting the “Play Imposed Video” Operational Process from the Project Explorer and then follow the same steps as described above.

Capella creates a new Play Imposed Video 3 Operational Activity Scenario under the Perform Flight On-Board Announcements Operational Capability, as below:

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Play Imposed Video 3 Operational Activity Scenario

The number 3 in the name represents the third scenario created under the Operational Scenario.

Now let’s create the Operational Activity Scenario to show model elements in a diagram.

To create Operational Activity Scenario, select Play Imposed Video 3 Operational Activity, then click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Activity Scenario”, as below:

Create new Operational Activity Scenario

The new Operational Activity Scenario created may need to be rearranged to show the same as the All Interaction inserted in Operational Activity Scenario described above.

To create a transition for the Operational Entity Scenario, select “Play Imposed Video 3” Operational Activity from the Project Explorer, then click “Transitions” > “Operational Activity Scenario to Operational Entity Scenario Initialization”, as below:

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Transition of Operational Activity Scenario to Operational Entity Scenario Initialisation

An Operational Entity Scenario can be created similarly to described for Operational Activity Scenario above, select “Play Imposed Video 3 (OES) in the Project Explorer, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Entity Scenario”, as below:

Create new Operational Entity Scenario

When the New Entity Scenario window is shown keep the same diagram as purposed: [OES] [OAS] Play Imposed Video 3 (OES).

A new diagram is created and visible in the Project Explorer: [OES] [OAS] Play Imposed Video 3 (OES) and the new Operational Entity Scenario diagram is open. The diagram model elements and display should be similar to the Operational Entity Scenario described above.

There is freedom in Capella to create the diagrams in any sequence.

Despite elements in Scenarios represent only references to model element, this means Scenarios are not synched with the model evolution, hence, consistency and completeness needs to be checked. Links created during the transition helps to verify consistency, correctness, and completeness of diagrams in a model.

For this simple example, Operational Activity and Entity Scenarios diagram do share the same model elements and Operational Capability description. The reason was to describe the option to create Scenarios from an Operational Process using the Capella Transition capability.

Hence, the below will be performed in the model:

  • Delete the Perform On-Board Announcements Operational Activity Scenario.
  • Delete the Perform Flight On-Board Announcements Operational Entity Scenario.
  • Rename both Scenario and diagram for Play Imposed Video 3 Operational Activity Scenario to Play Imposed Video.
  • Rename Play both Scenario and diagram for Imposed Video 3 (OES) Operational Entity Scenario to Play Imposed Video. It could be left (OES) to visualise the Scenario was transitioned.

The Operational Analysis project explorer at this point should look as below:

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Operational Analysis model

Operational Analysis traceability flow

When completed the model for Operational Analysis Project Explorer should look like as below:

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In-flight Entertainment Operational Analysis navigate model

As described in sections above, the Capella tool implements the Arcadia method, and the Arcadia method owns an ontology. Arcadia ontology defines model elements and the relationship among them enabling inherent traceability. Hence, it is possible in Capella to query and navigate from one model element to another.

For this example and only for the Operational Analysis (similar analysis can be done for all the other layers), it will be described an example how model elements are related via their relationship and navigate from one to another model element using a combination of Project Explorer and the Semantic Browser.

Starting with the Project Explorer. The steps for the model elements navigation are captured in the figure above (yellow) and again below:

  • (start) Perform Flight-Onboard Announcements Operational Capability.
  • Play Imposed Video Operational Process.
  • Watch Movie Operational Activity.
  • (end) Passenger Operational Entity.

In the Project Explorer select the Perform Flight On-Board Announcements Operational Capability. The Operational Capability will be shown in the Semantic Browser under current element area. Under Referenced Elements area it can be seen the Play Imposed Video Operational Process. Select and press F8. This Capella command will navigate back Project Explorer and to the Play Imposed Video Operational Process model element.

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Navigate from Operational Capability to Operational Process

To navigate from Play Imposed Operational Process to Watch Movie Operational Activity, select first the “Play Imposed Video” Operational Process in the Project Explorer then in the Semantic Browser, select “Watch Movie” Operational Activity and press F8 to navigate to model element as below:

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Navigate from Operational Process to Operational Activity

Finally, let’s navigate from Watch Movie Operational Activity to Passenger Operational Actor.

Select “Watch Video” Operational Activity from the Project Explorer, then under Referencing Elements select “Passenger” and click F8 to navigate to model element in Project Explorer, as below:

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Navigate from Operational Activity to Operational Actor

Capella creates links between model elements that are going to be explored hereafter.

By default, let’s make sure links will be visible. Click on “View Menu” > “Filters and Customisation”, as below:

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Filters and Customisation

When the Filters and Customisation window opens locate the following filters:

  • Functional Chains involvements
  • Trace

Let’s make sure the filters are not set. An example for Trace filter bellow:

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Filters and customisation

Figure below, shows relevant links that allows the same navigation between model elements as described above using the semantic browser and the relationship between model elements. Links are captured and can be seen in the Project Explorer highlighted in blue in figure above.

Operational Analysis links and model elements relationship

When completed the analysis above, let’s set the filters Set Default Filters. Click on “View Menu” > then “Set Default Filters”.

System Analysis model

The steps and diagrams will be created in order as described in the MBSE with Arcadia method step-by-step for System Analysis, and captured again below:

System Analysis activities matrix

Transition from Operational Analysis

A Capella transition is the mechanism that enables the tool to create model elements and links (aka traceability) at one layer from another.

Several transitions will be performed that will create links from System Analysis to Operational Analysis using the Activity Explorer. In the Activity Explorer (considering it is open) and:

  • Under transition from Operational Analysis
    • Automated transition of Operational Activities.
  • Under define Actors, Missions, and Capabilities:
    • Contextually create new System Actor from Operational Entities / Actors.
    • Contextually create new System Capability or Mission from Operational Capability.
  • Operational Process transition

Automated transition of Operational Analysis

To perform an automated transition of Operational Activities, click on “Automated transition of Operational Activities”, as below:

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Automated transition of Operational Activities

The below functional transition window shows three columns:

  • Synthesis: this column shows the difference between candidate and resulting model.
  • Candidate model: it provides the ability to select what model elements will be part of the resulting model.
  • Resulting model: shows a preview of the model when performed the transition.
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Automated transition of Operational Activities realisation links

Click on “Copy all to the right” and then “Ok” to perform the transition and close the window.

Contextually create new System Capability or Mission from Operational Capability

Let’s do the automated transition of Operational Capabilities in context with the Operational Actors from the Activity Explorer. From the Activity Explorer click on “Contextually create new System Capability or Mission from Operational Capability”, as below:

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Contextually create new System Capability or Mission from Operational Capability

Then select “System Capability”, as below:

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Contextually create new System Capability from Operational Capability

From the Capability Transition window, it can be seen the realisation link (C), but also the capability involvement with the Cabin Crew and the transformation links from System Analysis to Operational Analysis:

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Capability transition

Click on “Copy all to the right” and then “Ok” to perform the transition and close the window.

A final transition for Operational Process

Because the Operational Process was initially defined under Operational Capability, there is the need to perform a “Function Transition”. To perform an Operational Process Function transition, select from the Project Explorer, select Play Imposed Video Operational Process at Operational Analysis, then mouse right-click “Transitions” > “Functional Transition”, as below:

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Operational Process Functional Transition

The Operational Process functional transition will create involvement links (aka references) to the System Functions referenced by the System Functional Chain. It will also create a realisation link from System Capability to Operational Capability, as below:

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Operational Process Functional Transition window

Contextually create new System Actor from Operational Entities / Actors

Finally, it will be performed a System Actor from Operational Entities / Actors transition. Click on “Contextually create new System Actor from Operational Entities / Actors”, as below:

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Contextually create new System Actor from Operational Entities / Actors

From the selection dialog, select the Operational Entity and the two Operational Actors (i.e., Passenger and Cabin Crew), as below:

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Contextually create new System Actor from Operational Entities Actors selection dialog

In the Operational Entity to System Actor Transition window, it will be created System Actors, System Actor realisation links, but also transformation links (i.e., Operational Entities and Actors to System Actors) and Allocation links, as below:

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Operational Entity to System Actor transition window.

Click on “Copy all to the right” and then “Ok” to perform the transition and close the window.

When completed the System Analysis should look like below:

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System Analysis after full transition

System Analysis to Operational Analysis realisation links

The realisation links highlighted in sections above, create and allow traceability between model elements captured at System Analysis and Operational Analysis as captured in the figure below:

Realisation links created during System Analysis transition

Realisation links types:

  • A: System Actors realise Operational Entities and Actors.
  • C: System Capabilities realise Operational Capabilities.
  • F: System Functions realise Operational Activities.
  • P: Functional Chain realises Operational Process.

Capture Context System Actors

To define a new Context System Actor diagram, select from the Project Explorer and under Structure “System”, then mouse click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Contextual System Actors”, as below:

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Contextual System Actors

For this example, name will be kept as default: [CSA] System:

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Contextual System Actor diagram

Define Missions and System Capabilities

To create a new Missions and System Capabilities diagram, select from Project Explorer “System”, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Missions Capabilities Blank”, as below:

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Missions Capabilities Blank diagram

Keep the same name as default.

It will be inserted the transitioned Capability in the diagram. From Palette select “Capabilities”, then click on a blank area of the diagram and “Add selected element(s)”, as below:

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Insert Capability into diagram

To insert transitioned System Actor, select from the Palette “Actors”, then click on a blank area of the diagram, then select “Cabin Crew” and “Add selected element(s)”, as below:

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Insert System Actor in diagram

Finally, it will be created the Provide Cabin Management Solutions Mission and Capability exploitation from Mission to Perform Flight On-Board Announcements Capability, as below:

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Create Mission and Capability exploitation

Define System Functions Breakdown Structure

To create a new System Function Breakdown Structure diagram, select from Project Explorer “Root System Function”, then mouse right click “New Diagram Table…” > “System Function Breakdown”, as below:

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Create new System Function Breakdown System diagram

Keep the same default diagram name.

After a system functional analysis, it was identified that the Broadcast Movies functions allocated to the Aircraft will be decomposed, and part of the new functions allocated to the Aircraft and part to the In-flight System. To create new functions, select from the Palette “System Function”, then click on the Broadcast Movies function, this will create a new function and containment link. Rename the new function to Play Audio in Cabin, as below:

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Create new System Functions

Repeat the process above and create two new functions contained by Broadcast Movies, as below:

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Complete System Functions Breakdown Diagram

Change the colour of the Broadcast Movies function to white. This may be a good practise to refer to functions that were captured at layer above (i.e., Operational Analysis).

Define Functional Exchanges

Next it will be created a System Data Flow Blank diagram for the Perform Flight On-Board Announcements Capability. To create a new System Data Flow Blank diagram, select Perform Flight On-Board Announcements Capability, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “System Data Flow Blank”, as below:

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Create new System Data Flow Blank diagram

Keep the same default diagram name: [SDFB] Perform Flight On-Board Announcements.

When diagram created select from the Palette “Functions”, then click on a blank area of the diagram. The below Transfer Dialog window will open. Select “Add all elements”:

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Insert System Functions in diagram

Organise the functions and change the colour of the Broadcast Movies to white, as below:

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[SDFB] Perform Flight On-Board Announcements

Move the ports as below:

  • From Broadcast Movies (in) to Store Digital Media.
  • From Broadcast Movie (out) to Broadcast Audio Video Stream.

Create the Functional Exchange:

  • Audio Stream.
  • Audio Signal.
  • Audio Video Media.

Rearrange the System Functions and ports. The finished System Data Flow Blank diagram, should be similar as below:

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[SDFB] Perform Flight On-Board Announcements complete

Allocate System Functions to System Components and Actors

Let’s create a System Architecture Blank diagram.

First, rename the model element System. Select “System” from Project Explorer and rename to In-flight Entertainment.

To create a new System Architecture Blank diagram, select System, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “System Architecture Blank”, as below:

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New System Architecture Blank diagram

Keep the same default name: [SAB] In-flight Entertainment.

To insert System Actors into System Architecture Blank diagram, select from the Palette “Actors” then “Add all elements”, as below:

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Insert System Actors into System Architecture Blank diagram

When Actors inserted to the diagram, rearrange, and resize as below:

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[SAB] In-flight Entertainment

Let’s insert allocated System Functions to System and Actors. Start by allocating functions to System. Select from Palette “Allocated Functions” then click on In-flight Entertainment System model element. When the Transfer Dialog window is shown, select the three functions and click “Add selected element(s)”, as below:

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Insert Allocated Functions transfer dialogue

Repeat the process above for Passenger and Cabin Crew Actor. Rearrange and resize the functions as below:

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Insert Allocated Functions

By design decision the Play Audio in Cabin System Function will not be allocated to the In-Flight Entertainment, but to Aircraft. To reallocate the function, select and drag from In-flight Entertainment to Aircraft, as below:

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[SAB] In-flight Entertainment reallocated function

As Play Audio in Cabin function was re-allocated, the System Data Flow Blank Diagram and System Functional Breakdown Blank diagram were also updated. This is noticed in the function colour that changed from green (functions allocated to the System) to blue (functions allocated to Actors):

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SDFB and SFBD updated after function allocation

Next it will be created Components Exchanges between all Actors and the In-flight Entertainment.

To create new Component Exchange, select from the Palette “Component Exchange”, then click on “Cabin Crew” and then “In-flight Entertainment”, as below:

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Create new Component Exchange

Functional Exchanges should be allocated to Component Exchanges. To create Port Allocation, select from the Palette “Port Allocation”, then click on Component Port owned by Cabin Crew, then click on Function Port owned by Cabin Crew, as below:

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Create Port Allocation

Repeat the process above to create the Component Exchanges and Port Allocations, and rename Component Exchanges as below:

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[SAB] In-flight Entertainment with Component Exchanges and Port Allocation

Now that Component Exchanges and Port Allocation is complete, there is the need to make sure all Component Exchanges and Port Allocations directions are consistent. There will be the need to update both ports directions for Imposed Video Playing Status Component Exchange to IN OUT as they are allocated to IN and OUT Functional Input and Output Ports.

To change Component Port direction double click on one Component Port and when the Properties Window opens change the direction to INOUT, as below:

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Change Component Port direction

Repeat the process above for the other Component Port. When changed the Component Port directions the System Architecture Blank should be as below:

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Complete System Architecture Blank diagram

Use the diagram filters, as figure below to:

  • Collapse Component Ports.
  • Hider Component Exchanges.
  • Hide Port Allocations.
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Diagram filters

When filters applied the diagram should look like above [SAB] In-flight Entertainment reallocated function figure.

Describe System Capability with Functional Chains

Functional Chains can be created in either System Architecture Blank or System Data Flow Blank diagram in a similar process to the described for the Operational Analysis is section above.

For this example, it will be inserted the Functional Chain transitioned from Operational Analysis. To insert the Play Imposed Video Function, select from the Palette “Functional Chain” then click on a blank area of the SDFB diagram. When the transfer dialog is shown select the Functional Chain and click “Add selected element(s), as below:

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Insert Functional Chain

Notice that when inserted the Functional Chain next to its name it is shown as invalid. The reason is the Broadcast Movies System Function was broken down and Function Ports delegated. Hence, new functions were added.

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[SDFB] Perform Flight On-Board Announcements invalid Functional Chain

To correct the Functional Chain there is the need to create a System Functional Chain Description diagram.

To create a System Functional Chain Description diagram, select the Play Imposed Video Functional Chain, then mouse right-click “Functional Chain” > “Create a Functional Chain”, as below:

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Create new System Functional Chain Description

Keep the same default diagram name: [SFCD] Play Imposed Video.

When created the new Play Imposed Video System Functional Chain Description it can be seen there is a function with no interactions, for example.

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Created new System Functional Chain Description diagram

The following updates to the System Functional Chain Description:

  • Delete from diagram Broadcast Movies. As a reminder this function was initially defined at Operational Analysis, transitioned to System Analysis, and finally refined in two more functions as described in previous section. In addition, the Arcadia rule that only leaf functions should be allocated. In addition, Broadcast Movies is also part of the Operational Process. As the Operational Process was transitioned and Play Imposed Video Functional Chain was created. Hence, Broadcast video belongs to the Functional Chain, but needs to be deleted and only leaf functions should be reference in the Functional Chain
  • Insert the new refined functions captured at System Analysis: Play Audio in Cabin.
  • Broadcast Audio Video Stream and Store Digital Media are already part of the Functional Chain as the ports were delegated from Broadcast Movies to each function, as described previously.
  • Create Exchange between:
    • Broadcast Audio Video Streams and Play Imposed Movie Functional Chain Involvement Function.
    • Play Audio in Cabin to Watch Movie Functional Chain Involvement Function.
  • Create Exchange and Function:
    • From Broadcast Audio Video Streams to Play Audio in Cabin
    • Store Digital Media and Broadcast Audio Video Streams Functional Chain Involvement Function. There is the need to add this new function as Capella prevents closed loops.

When completed the System Functional Chain Description should be similar to the as below:

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Updated System Functional Chain Description

Use the Exchange and Exchange and Function from the Palette to add Functional Exchange involvement Functions and links.

Functional Chains updated and inserted in System Data Flow Blank and System Architecture Blank diagrams:

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Functional Chains updated and inserted in SDFB and SAB diagrams

Describe System Capability with Functional and Entity Scenarios

Functional and Entity Scenarios describe System Capabilities. Scenarios can be created like Operational Scenarios described in previous section.

Logical Architecture model

The steps and diagrams will be created in order as described in the MBSE with Arcadia method step-by-step for Logical Architecture, and captured again below:

Logical Architecture activities matrix

Transition from System Analysis

Transition activities from System Analysis to Logical Architecture model:

  • Perform an automated transition of System Functions.
  • Perform an automated transition of System Actors.
  • Perform an automated transition System Analysis Capabilities.
  • Transition of the Functional Chain.

Logical Architecture Activity explorer, as below:

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Logical Architecture transition Activity Explorer

Starting with the Perform an automated transition of System Functions and when Functional Transition window opens, all the candidate model elements will be copied to the resulting model. To copy all elements, click on “Copy all to the right”, as below:

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Perform an automated transition of System Functions functional transition window

Note in the figure above that when in the transition it is also transitioned the allocated component ports to functional ports under the structure package.

Repeat the process above for the other two automated transition.

When completed the activity explorer automated transition the Logical Architecture package should be as below:

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Logical Architecture after automated transition

Finally, it will be transitioned the Functional Chain that describes the Perform Flight On-Board Announcements Capability Realisation. To perform a Functional Chain transition, select from the Project Explorer and under “System Analysis > Capabilities” the Play Imposed Video Functional Chain, as below:

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System Analysis to Logical Architecture transition

Functional Chain transitioned to Logical Architecture:

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Functional Chain transitioned to Logical Architecture

Logical Architecture to System Analysis realisation links

Similarly, to System Analysis transition, realisation links are created during Logical Architecture transition providing traceability between model elements captured at Logical Architecture and System Analysis as figure below:

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Realisation links created during Logical Architecture transition

Realisation links types:

  • A: Logical Components (Actors) realise System Actors.
  • C: Logical Capabilities realise System Capabilities.
  • F: Logical Functions realise System Functions.
  • P: Logical Functional Chain realises System Functional Chain.

Capabilities Realization at Logical Architecture

Let’s start creating a new Capability Realization diagram. To create a new Capability Realization diagram, select from the Project Explorer “Capabilities”, then “New Diagram / Table…” > “Capability Realization Blank”, as below:

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Create new Capability Realisation Blank diagram

Keep the same name as default: [CRB] Capabilities.

Insert Actor to Capability Realisation Blank diagram. To insert Actor, select from the Palette and under Tools “Actors”. When the transfer dialog window is shown select only “Cabin Crew”, then “Add selected element(s)” > “Ok”, as below:

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Create new Capability Realisation Blank diagram

Insert Capability Realisation in the diagram, as below:

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Insert Capability Realisation into diagram

When completed the Capability Realisation Blank Diagram should be similar as below:

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Insert Capability Realisation into diagram

This diagram will not be changed at Logical Architecture; however, it is represented in a diagram what Capability realises the Capability defined at System Analysis, which realises an Operational Capability at Operational Analysis.

Define Logical Functions

The process to define Logical Functions is very similar to System Analysis. To create a Logical Functional Breakdown Diagram, select “Root Logical Function”, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table” > “Logical Function Breakdown”, as below:

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Create Logical Function Breakdown diagram

Keep the same default diagram name: [LFBD] Root Logical Function.

When the Logical Function Breakdown diagram opens change the fill colour to white. This is a good practise that allows to identify what functions were transitioned from System Analysis and that may be refined. Also note that function icon shows “LF”, whilst at System Analysis it was “SF”. When completed the Logical Function Breakdown diagram should be, as below:

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Logical Function Breakdown diagram

Add, resize, and move functions, as Function Breakdown diagram below:

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Complete Logical Functional Breakdown diagram

Define Functional Exchanges

Next it will be created a Logical Data Flow Blank diagram that describes the Perform Flight On-Board Announcement Capability Realisation. Select from the Project Explorer “Perform Flight On-Board Announcements”, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Logical Data Flow Blank”, as below:

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Create Logical Data Flow Blank diagram

Keep the same diagram name as default: [LDFB] Perform Flight On-Board Announcements.

When the diagram opens insert Logical Functions in Logical Data Flow Blank diagram. To insert Logical Functions, select from the Palette “Functions”, then click in a blank area of the diagram. When the transfer dialogue window opens click on “Add all elements” > “Ok”, as below:

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Insert Logical Functions in Logical Data Flow Blank diagram

When functions are inserted into the diagram, functions will need to resize and moved to make the diagram readable.

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Functions first added to the Logical Data Flow Blank diagram

Diagram colours are unique to each diagram, hence, there is the need to identify what functions were transitioned and change the fill background to white. After initial rework on the diagram, it should be like the diagram below:

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Initial Functions and Exchanges diagram cleaning

New Functional Exchanges will be created, and some functional ports moved. Creating Functional Exchanges at Logical Architecture is the same as described at System Analysis. Hence, it will not be described again. Create the Logical Data Flow Blank diagram, as bellow:

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Logical Data Flow Blank diagram complete

Define Logical Components

At this point, it will be created a Logical Components Breakdown diagram. To create Logical Breakdown Blank diagram, select from the Project Explorer “Structure” package, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Logical Component Breakdown”, as below:

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Create Logical Architecture Breakdown Diagram

Keep the same diagram default name as [LCBD] Structure.

When created and opened the diagram it shows the Logical System and Logical Actors as below:

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Initial Logical Component and Actors

New Logical Components will be created. To create new Logical Component, select on the Palette “Logical Components”, then click on the Logical System. A new Logical Component will be created. Rename the Logical Component to Aircraft Front Servers, as below:

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Create new Logical Component

Repeat the process above and create the Logical Component Breakdown Diagram, as below:

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Logical Component Breakdown Diagram complete

Allocate Logical Functions to Logical Components

To allocate Logical Functions to Logical Components previously created, it will be created the Logical Architecture Blank diagram. To create a new Logical Architecture Blank diagram, select “Logical System” under Structure package, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Logical Architecture Blank”, as below:

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Create new Logical Architecture Blank diagram

Keep the diagram name as default: [LAB] Logical System

When Logical Architecture Blank diagram is open from the Palette: Insert Components and Actors, as below:

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Insert Logical Components and Actors

Rearrange and resize Logical Components and Actors as below:

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Rearrange and resize Logical Components and Actors

We can now allocate functions to Logical Components. To allocate functions to Logical Components, select from the Palette “Manage Function Allocation”, then click on a Logical Component, select, and add the correspondent Logical Function, as diagram below:

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Logical Functions allocated to Logical Components

Finally, Component Exchanges and Functional Ports need to be created. To create Components Exchanges and Functional Port allocations, is a similar process as described at System Analysis. When the diagram is complete it should be as bellow:

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Add Components Exchanges and defined Ports allocation

Describe Capability Realization with Functional Chains and Scenarios

The Play Imposed Video Functional Chain was transitioned from System Analysis. It can now be inserted and shown in diagrams. From the palette select “Functional Chain” and click on a blank area of the Logical Architecture Blank diagram, as bellow:

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Inserted Functional Chain transitioned from System Analysis

In the diagram next to the Functional Chain name is shown as invalid. Again, the reason is that functions transitioned from System Analysis were refined at Logical Architecture and only leaf functions were allocated to Logical Components. Hence, there is the need to correct the Functional Chain. To correct the functional as similarly to what was described at System Analysis, there is the need to create a new Logical Functional Chain Description diagram. To create a new Logical Functional Description diagram, select from the Project Explorer Play Imposed Video Functional Chain, then mouse right-click “New Diagram / Table…” > “Functional Chain Description”, as bellow:

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Create new Logical Functional Description blank

Keep the same diagram name as default: [LFCD] Play Imposed Video.

The Logical Functional Chain Description diagram first time opened should be like below:

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Logical Functional Chain Description diagram

When complete the Logical Functional Chain Description diagram should be like the below:

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Logical Functional Chain Description complete

Logical Architecture Blank and Logical Data Flow Blank diagram below showing corrected Functional Chain:

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Logical Architecture Blank and Logical Data Flow Blank diagram

Physical Architecture model

The steps and diagrams will be created in order as described in the MBSE with Arcadia method step-by-step for Physical Architecture, and captured again below:

Physical Architecture activities matrix

Transition from Logical Architecture

Transition activities from Logical Architecture to Physical Architecture model:

  • Perform an automated transition of Logical Functions.
  • Perform an automated transition of External Logical Actors.
  • Perform an automated transition of Logical System.
  • Logical Architecture Capabilities Functional Transition

Physical Architecture Activity explorer, as below:

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Physical Architecture transition Activity Explorer

Perform an automated transition of Logical Functions

Starting with the “Perform an automated transition of Logical Functions” and when Functional Transition window opens, all the candidate model elements will be copied to the resulting model. To copy all elements, click on “Copy all to the right”, as below:

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Perform an automated transition of Logical Functions

Perform an automated transition of External Logical Actors

Next, “Perform an automated transition of External Logical Actors” and when Actors Transition window opens, all the candidate model elements will be copied to the resulting model. To copy all elements, click on “Copy all to the right”, as below:

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Perform an automated transition of External Logical Actors

Perform an automated transition of Logical System

Next, “Perform an automated transition of Logical System” and LC / LA to PC / PA Transition window opens, all the candidate model elements will be copied to the resulting model. To copy all elements, click on “Copy all to the right”, as below:

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Perform an automated transition of Logical System

Only part of the Logical Components Breakdown is possible to be shown in the figure above.

Logical Architecture Capabilities Functional Transition

For the Functional Chain transition captured at Logical Architecture to Physical Architecture, it will be used Functional Transition of the Logical Capability. This will show another tool capability to transition model elements. For Logical Capability Functional Transition, select from the Project Explorer “Perform Flight On-Board Announcement” Capability, then mouse right-click “Transitions” > “Functional Transitions”, as below:

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Perform an automated transition of Logical Architecture Capabilities

When the Functional Transition window opens, expand the model packages under synthesis, and the Capability, as below.

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Logical Architecture Capability Functional Transition window

When performing the Capability Functional Transition, it will also be transitioned the Functional Chain owned.

When all the above transitions are complete, the Physical Architecture (partly shown) should be as below:

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Physical Architecture model

Physical Architecture to Logical Architecture realisation links

Similarly, to Logical Architecture transition, realisation links are created during Physical Architecture transition providing traceability between model elements captured at Physical Architecture and Logical Architecture as figure below:

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Realisation links created during Physical Architecture transition

Realisation links types:

  • A: Physical Components realise Logical Components.
  • C: Physical Capabilities realise Logical Capabilities.
  • F: Physical Functions realise Logical Functions.
  • P: Physical Functional Chain realises Logical Functional Chain.

Capabilities Realization at Physical Architecture

Steps to create the Capability Realization Blank diagram, insert Capability Realization and Physical Actor model elements in the diagram are the same as described in section above. The Physical Capability Realisation Blank diagram, as below:

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Physical Capability Realisation and Physical Actor

Define Physical Functions

Steps to create Physical Function Breakdown diagram, insert Physical Functions and change Functions background colour are the same as described in previous section. When completed the diagram should be like the one below:

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Physical Functions transitioned

From a design analysis, it can be added new functions that are identified and related to specific technologies. New functions were added to the Functional Breakdown structure, as below:

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New Physical Functions added

Define Functional Exchanges

The steps and process to insert Functions and Interactions and organise the diagram is like described in previous section. When completed the Physical Data Flow Blank diagram should be similar to diagram below:

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Physical Data Flow Blank diagram

Define Behavioural and Physical Nodes

Steps to create a new Physical Component Breakdown Diagram (PCBD) is the same for Physical as Logical. Create the new PCBD under the Structure package. Organise and change the background colour to white, as below:

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Physical Component Breakdown Diagram

From the palette click and create new Node Physical Component (PC) and Behaviour Physical Component (PC):

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Palette Node PC and Behaviour PC

Create the component breakdown structure, as below:

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Physical Component Breakdown Diagram complete

Allocate functions to Behavioural Nodes and deploy Physical Nodes Components

Node Physical Components, allocate Behavioural Nodes Components, Behavioural Components implement Functions. To make the relationship of model elements the Physical Architecture Blank diagram will be used.

Create a new diagram under Structure package. When diagram opens

  • Insert first Node PC in the diagram.
  • Next from the palette click on “Manage Node PC’s Deployment” and select the Behavioural PC for each Node.
  • When Behavioural PC are allocated to the correspondent node PC, Functions can be shown or allocated to the Behavioural PC.
  • Create Component exchanges between Behavioural PC.
  • Allocate Component to Function Ports.

When completed the Physical Architecture Blank diagram should be the same as below:

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Physical Architecture Blank diagram

At this level Physical Links can also be captured. Physical Links connect Node PCs.

When Physical Links are defined, Components Ports should be allocated to Physical Ports and define Physical Paths.

Let’s create first a first Physical Link “Audio Stream Data Cable” that will allow audio and video streaming between ASU Processor and VSU Processor. Also allocated Physical Ports to Component Ports, as below:

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Physical Link between ASU and VSU processor

A Physical Link can be created that captures all the Node PC. To create a Physical Path is like creating Functional Chain. Select all the Physical Links created previously, then mouse right-click and select “Physical Path”. When created the Physical Path, change the name to “Audio Stream Data Path”. When completed the Audio Stream Data Path is shown in the diagram, as below:

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Audio Stream Data Path Physical Path

For diagram simplicity, let’s hide Functions and functional Exchanges. To hide both Functions and Functional Exchanges there is only the need to hide Functions. To hide functions, click on the diagram “Filters”, then the “Hide Functions”.

Create the Physical Links, Port allocations and Physical Paths, as below:

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Physical Paths defined

Let’s create now the Physical Path. Select “Audio Stream Data Path”, then mouse right-click, the “New Physical Path Description”. When completed reorganise the diagram, as below:

[PPD] Audio Stream Data Path

Keep the same name as default: [PPD] Audio Stream Data Path

Repeat the process above for the other two Physical Path.

Describe Capability Realization with Functional Chains and Scenarios

New Physical Functions were created; hence, it is expected to have an invalid Functional Chain, previously transitioned from Logical Architecture. In this section it will be described how to correct the invalid Functional Chain. It will be used the Physical Data Flow Blank diagram defined under Perform Flight On-Board Announcements Capability. The Functional Chain shows invalid, as figure blow:

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Corrected Play Imposed Video invalid Functional Chain

To correct the Functional Chain, select the “Play Imposed Video” Functional Chain, then “New” > “Functional Chain Description”.

Keep the same default name: [PFCD] Play Imposed Video

When corrected the Functional Chain it should be similar to the diagram below:

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Scenarios could be created as described is previous sections.